„Die Natur wird erst rein Gegenstand für den Menschen, …“ / ‚grundrisse der kritik der politischen ökonomie‘ von karl marx

So schafft das Kapital erst die bürgerliche Gesellschaft und die universelle Aneignung der Natur wie des gesellschaftlichen Zusammenhangs selbst durch die Glieder der Gesellschaft. Hence the great civilising influence of capital; seine Produktion einer Gesellschaftsstufe, gegen die alle frühren nur als lokale Entwicklungen der Menschheit und als Naturidolatrie erscheinen. Die Natur wird erst rein Gegenstand für den Menschen, rein Sache der Nützlichkeit; hört auf, als Macht für sich anerkannt zu werden; und die theoretische Erkenntnis ihrer selbständigen Gesetze erscheint selbst nur als List, um sie den menschlichen Bedürfnissen, sei es als Gegenstand des Konsums, sei es als Mittel der Produktion, zu unterwerfen.

karl marx, ‚grundrisse der kritik der politischen ökonomie‘, (oktober 1857 bis mai 1858), zitiert nach mew marx-engels-werke, band 42, berlin 1983

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„raus aus dem garten!“

mit anke schmitz (garten auf freigang) in der ausstellung ‚thomas gainsborough. die moderne landschaft‘ in der hamburger kunsthalle:

gruenesblut.net

 

„Gärten sind begehbare Bilder.“ / ludger gerdes, ‚anmerkungen‘ zu ’schiff für münster‘

Gärten sind wie erotischer Zustand zwischen Kultur und Natur. Die Kunst des 20. Jahrhunderts hat kaum mehr Gärten geschaffen. Vielleicht war sie autoerotisch.

Gärten sind begehbare Bilder. Sie sind zu Realität gewordene Inszenierungen der Welt, in ihnen vergegenständlicht sich, wie der Mensch Dinge interpretiert und gestaltet sehen will. Gärten sind ein Muster an Kommunikation. Sie setzen immer eine Kommunikation und Integration von Kunst und Natur voraus und oft eine Kommunikation und Integration verschiedener Kunstgattungen untereinander. […]

Es ist komisch, wie sehr in der modernen Kunst der Gedanke reflektiert wurde, Kunst könne Objekte um ihrer selbst willen herstellen, ohne daß sie als Bilder legitimiert werden müßten; daß aber kaum je der weitere Schritt getan wurde zu sagen, sie könne auch eigenständige Orte schaffen.

ludger gerdes, ‚anmerkungen‘ (zum projekt ’schiff für münster‘) in ’skulptur projekte in münster 1987′, katalog zur ausstellung hrsg. von klaus bußmann und kasper könig, münster/köln 1987

frühling: blumenzwiebeln & gras / ‚the wild garden‘ von william robinson

How many of us really enjoy the beauty which a judicious use of a profusion of good and cheap Spring Bulbs is certain to throw around a country seat or villa garden? How many get beyond the miserable conventionalities of modern gardening, with its edgings and patchings, and taking up, and drying, and mere playing with our beautiful Spring Bulbs? How many enjoy the exquisite beauty afforded by Spring flowers of this type, established naturally, and croping up full of beauty, without troubling us for attention at any time? None. The subject of decorating with Spring Bulbs is merely in its infancy; at present we merely place a few of the showiest of them in geometrical lines. The little we do leads to such a very poor end, that numbers of people, alive to the real charms of a garden too, scarcely notice Spring Bulbs at all, regarding them as things which require endless trouble, as interfering with the “bedding–out,” and in fact, as not worth the pains they occasion. This is likely to be the case so long as the most effective and satisfactory of all modes of arranging them is unused by the body of the gardening public; that way is the placing of them in wild and semi–wild parts of country seats and gardens, and in the rougher parts of a garden, no matter where it may be situated or how it may be arranged. It is a way never practised now, but which I venture to say will yield more real interest and exquisite beauty than any other.

Look, for instance, at the wide and bare belts of grass that wind in and around the shrubberies in nearly every country place; generally, they never display a particle of plant–beauty, and are merely places to be roughly mown now and then. But if planted here and there with the Snowdrop, the blue Anemone, the Crocus, Squills, and Winter Aconite, they would in spring surpass in attractiveness to the tasteful eye the primmmest and gayest of spring gardens. Cushioned among the grass, these would have a more congenial medium in which to unfold than is offered by the beaten sticky earth of a border; in the budding emerald grass of spring, their natural bed, they would look far better than ever they do when arranged on the brown earth of a garden. Once carefully planted, they – while an annual source of the greatest interest – occasion no trouble whatever. Their leaves die down so early in spring that they would scarcely interfere with the mowing of the grass, if that were desired, but I should not attempt to mow the grass in such places till the season of vernal beauty had quite passed by.

Surely it is enough to have the lawn as smooth as a carpet at all times, without sending the mower to shave the “long and pleasant grass” of the remoter parts of the grounds. It would indeed be worth while to leave many parts of the grass unmown for the sake of growing many beautiful plants in it.

william robinson, ‚the wild garden or, our groves & shrubberies made beautiful by the naturalization of hardy exotic plants: with a chapter on the garden of british wild flowers‘, london, 1870.

gartenbücher (wildobst: pflanze „wild“ und dornig)

ein gang durch einen supermarkt: glatte, gewachste oberflächen; keine variation in der grösse; süss, viel zu süss, bloss keine säure … wenn food designer obstsorten züchten. flug- und seemeilen im container inklusive. zu jeder jahreszeit verfügbar.

ein spaziergang durch eine kulturlandschaft mit wallhecken oder knicks: blüten im frühjahr, schatten im sommer & früchte im herbst. nicht unbedingt wild aber häufig dornig …

wild ?!

in der anglo-amerikanischen diskussion über gärten erlebt william robinson’s ‚the wild garden‘ gerade eine renaissance (deutsche übersetzung? fehlanzeige …). in deutschsprachigen raum bleibt der diskurs über „natur“ & „wild“, karl foerster nannte es wildnisgartenkunst, meist in purem romantizismus stecken oder man landet bei einem fragwürdigen vokabular wie dem von willy lange, dessen naturgartenidealismus und die propagierung von „einheimischen pflanzen“ sehr kompatibel mit nationalsozialistischen vorstellungen war … und überhaupt: was ist wild? viele heute als „einheimisch“ klassifizierte gewächse sind verwilderte pflanzen, die u.a. von den römern über die alpen gebracht wurden. es steckt viel gartenkultur in der „wilden“ „natur“.

ina sperl, die regelmässig in der frankfurter allgemeinen & im kölner stadt-anzeiger über gartenkultur, gärtner, pflanzen & den eigenen garten schreibt, gibt mit ‚wildobst: schlehe, hagebutte und co. für meinen garten‘ einen einblick in den artenreichtum des wilden obstes. ‚wildobst‘ bleibt nicht, wie viele bücher aus der rubrik „ratgeber“, im seichten das-ist-aber-lecker-do-it-yourself stecken. ein nachschlagewerk mit ihren „40 besten wildobstarten“, tipps für die gartenarbeit und einigen botanischen entdeckungen für den leser. naschkram für hecken, grosse und kleine gärten und den kübel. Weiterlesen

gartenbücher (romantisch & post-wild)

romantisch

kinder und ein garten vor den toren der stadt, im hintergrund die türme der hamburger hauptkirchen. ‚die hülsenbeckschen kinder‘ von philipp otto runge in der hamburger kunsthalle, landlust anno 1805. kindheit im garten wird gern verklärt, romantisiert. diese kinder der frühromantik spielen (bzw. arbeiten) nicht im garten: ein mädchen und ein junge ziehen einen bollerwagen mit dem jüngsten bruder, der nach einer sonnenblume am weg greift. hinter ihnen der gartenzaun und dahinter der garten. den romantischen „bauerngarten“ haben sie hinter sich gelassen, hinaus in die romantische, wilde natur, …

die suche nach der reinen, erhabenen natur und die flucht aufs land begannen schon im 18. jh., der zeit der aufklärung. man lese nur ‚das landleben‘ (1767) von christian cay lorenz hirschfeld. die industrialisierung und das wachsen der städte führte am ende des 18 jh. zur suche nach der blauen blume. die flucht in die natur endete häufig in einem elegischen eskapismus, grossen gefühlen und der suche nach dem „inneren Afrika“ (Jean Paul). gärten findet man auf den bildern der maler der romantik selten und wenn, sind sie ersatz für stimmungen. sowohl die englischen, wie william turner oder john constable, oder die deutschen bevorzugten landschaften, natur. caspar david friedrich montierte sich seine romantische natur aus versatzstücken zusammen wie es schon die gärtner im landscape garden gemacht hatten …

der landschaftsgarten des 18. jh. war eine ansammlung von versatzstücken, kulissen, follies in einer der natur nachgebildeten künstlichen landschaft. er löste als ausdruck der rationalen aufklärung den barockgarten des ancien régime ab, der von mathematischen weltsicht des 17. jh. geprägt war. der übergang vom barocken parterre über die in barocken formen eingefasste „natur“ der bosques bis zur geplanten landschaft des landscape gardens, lässt sich am besten im schlossgarten in schwetzingen (→ „lehrreich und gleichsam enzyklopädisch“) studieren. vom schloss blickt man über die geschichte der gartenkunst im 18. und frühen 19. jh. auf einer achse, die vom odenwald zur grossen kalmit im pfälzerwald führt: der romantiker überquert den rhein (richtig romantisch wird der rhein erst flussabwärts) und geht im mittelgebirge wandern … Weiterlesen

wildernesses / ‘the gardeners dictionary‘ von philip miller

WILDERNESSES, if rightly situated, artfully contrived, and judiciously planted, are very great ornaments to a fine garden; but it is rare to see these so well executed in gardens as could be wished, nor are they often judiciously situated; for they are frequently so situated as to hinder a distant prospect, or else are not judiciously planted; the latter of whichis farce ever to be found in any of our most magnificent  gardens, very few of their designers ever studying the natural growth of trees so as to place them in such manner, that they may not obstruct the sight from the several parts of the plantation which are presented to the view; I shall therefore briefly set down what has occurred to me from time to time, when I have considered these parts of gardens, whereby a person will be capable to form an idea of the true beauties which ought always to be studied in the contrivance of Wildernesses

1. Wildernesses should always be proportioned to the extent of the gardens in which they are made, that they may correspond in magnitude with the other parts of the garden; for it is very ridiculous to fee a large Wilderness planted with tall trees in a small spot of ground; and on the other hand, nothing can be more absurd, than to see little paltry squares, or quarters of Wilderness work, in a magnificent large garden.

2. As to the situation of Wildernesses, they should never be placed too near the habitation, becauce the great quantity of moisture which is perspired from the trees will cause a damp unwholesome air about the house, which is often of ill consequence. Nor should they be situated so as to obstruct any distant prospcet of the country, which should always be preserved wherever it can be obtained, there being nothing so agreeable to the mind as an unconfined prospect of the adjacent country; […]

3. The trees should always be adapted to the size of the plantation, for it is very absurd to see tall trees panted in small squares of a little garden; and so likewise, if in large designs are planted nothins but small srubs, it will have a mean appearance. It should also be observed, never to plant evergreen among deciduous trees, but always place the evergreens in a Wilderness, or a separate part of the Wilderness by themselves, and that chiefly in sight, because these afford a continual pleasure both in summer and winter, when in the latter season the deciduous trees do not appear so agreeable; therefore, if the borders of Wilderness quarters are skirted with evergreens, they will have a good effect.

4. The walks must also be proportioned to the size of the ground, and not make large walks in a small Wilderness (nor too many walks, though smaller) whereby the greatest part of the ground is employed in walks; nor should the grand walks of a large Wilderness be too small, both of which are equally faulty. These walks should not be entered immediately from those of the pleasure-garden, but rather be led into by a small private walk, which will render it more entertaining; or if the large walk be tutned in form of a serpent, so as not to shew its whole extent, the mind will be better pleased, than if the whole were to open to the view.

The old formal method of contriving Wildernesses was to divide the whole compass of ground, either into squares, angles, circles, or other figures, making the walks correspondent to them, planting the sides of the walks with hedges of Lime, Elm, Hornbeam, &c. and the quarters within were planted with various kinds of trees promiscuoufly without order; but this can by no means be esteemed a judicious method becauce first hereby there will be a great expence in keeping the hedges of a large Wilderness in good order by shearing them, which, instead of being beautiful, are rather the reverse; for as these parts of a garden should, in a great measure, be designed from nature, whatever has the stiff appearance of art, does by no mean correspond therewith ; besides, these hedges are generally trained up so high, as to obstrud the sight from the stems of the tall trees in the quarters, which ought never to be done.

In the next place the walks are commonly made to intersect each other in angles, which asfo shew too formal and trite for such plantations, and are by no means comparable to such walks as have the appearance of meanders or labyrinths, where the eye cannot discover more than twenty or thirty yards in length; and the more these walks are turned, the greater pleasure they will afford. These should now and then lead into an open circular piece of Grass, in the center of which may be placed either an obelifk, statue, or fountain; and if in the middle part of the Wilderness there be contrived a large opening, in the center of which may be erected a dome or banquetinghouse surrounded with a green plat of Grass, it will be a considerable addition to the beauty of the place. […]

In the distribution of these plantations, in those parts which are planted with deciduous trees, there may be planted next the walks and openings, Roses, Honeysuckles, Spiræa Frutex, and other kinds of low-flowering shrubs, which maybe always kept very dwarf, and may be planted pretty close together; and at the foot of them, near the sides of the walks, may be planted Primroses, Violets, Daffodils, and many other sorts of wood flowers, not in a strait line, but rather to appear accidental, as in a natural wood. Behind the first row of shrubs should be planted Syringas, Cytisuses, Althæa frutex, Mezereons, and other flowering shrubs of a middle growth, which may be backed with Laburnums, Lilacs, Guelder Roses, and other flowering shrubs of a large growth: these may be backed with other sorts of trees, rising gradually to the middle of the quatters, from whence they should always slope down every way to the walks.

By this distribulon you will have the pleasure of the flowering shrubs near the sight, whereby you will be regaled with their scent as you pass through the walks, which is seldom observed by those who plant Wildernesses, for nothing is more common than to see Roses, Honeysuckles, and other small flowering shrubs, placed in the middle of large quarters, under the droprping and shade of large trees, where they seldom thrive; and if they do, the pleasure of them is Iost, becaufe they are secluded from the sight. […]

But, beside these grand walks and openings, (which may be: laid with turf, and kept well mowed) there should be some smaller serpentine walks throuh the middle of the quarters, where persons may retire for privacy. […]

In the general design for these Wildernesses it should not be studied to make the several parts correspondent,for that is so formal and stiff, as to be now quite rejected. The greater diversity there is in the distribution of these parts, the more pleasure they will afford; and since, according to this method of designing and planting, the different parts never present themselves to the same views, it is no matter how different they are varied asunder; that part of them which is most in view from the house, or other parts of the garden, may be planted with evergreens, but the other parts may be planted with deciduous trees […].

The part planted with evergreens may be disposed in the follownig manner, viz. in the first line next the great walks may be placed Laurustinus, Boxes, Spurge Laurel, Juniper, Savin, and other dwarf evergreens; behind these may be planted Laurels, Hollies, Arbutuses, and other evergreens of a larger growth; next to these may be placed Alaternuses, Phyllireas, Yews, Cypresses, Virginian Cedars, and other trees of the fame growth; behind these may be planted Norway and Silver Firs, the True Pine, and other forts of the like growth; and in the middle should be planted Scotch Pines, Pinaster, and other of the largest growing evergreens, which will afford a most delightful prospect, if the different shades of their greens are curiously intermixed.[…]

In small gardens where there is not room for these magnificent Wildernesses, there may be some rising clumps of evergreens, fo designed as to make the gound appear much larger than it is in reality; and if in these there are some serpentine walks well contrived, it will greatly improve the places, and deceive those who are unacquainted with the ground as to its size. These clumps or little quarters of evergreens should be placed just beyond the plain opening of Grass before the house, where the eye will be carried from the plain surface of Grass to the regular slope ofevergreens, to the great pleasure of the beholder; but if there is a distant prospect of the adjacent country, from the house, then this should not be obstructed, but rather be left open for the prospect bounded on each side with these clumps, which may be extended to those parts of the ground, where no view is obstructed. These small quarters should not be surrounded with hedges, for the reasons before given; nor should they be cut into angles, or any other studied figures, but be designed rather in a rural manner, which is always preferable to the other, for these kinds of plantations.

In Wildernesses there is but little trouble or expence after their first planting, which is an addition to their value; the only labour required is to mow and roll the large Grass walks, and to keep the other ground walks free from weeds. And in the quarters, if the weeds are hoed down two or three times in a summer, it will still add to their neatness. The trees should also be pruned to cut out all dead wood, or irregular branches, where they cross each other, and just to preserve them with due bounds; and […], if the ground be (lightly dug between the trees, if will greatly promote their vigour. This being the whole labour of a Wilderness, it is no wonder they are so generally esteemed, especially when consider the pleasure they afford.

philip miller, ‘the gardeners dictionary: containing the best and newest methods of improving the kitchen, fruit, flower garden, and nursery; as also for performing the practical parts of agriculture: including the management of vinyards, […]. london, 1768 (8th edition).

kulturlandschaft: am brocken / ‚the harz mountains: a tour in the toy country‘ by henry blackburn

Continuing the ascent [on the heinrich-heine-wanderweg from ilsenburg to the brocken summit], which changes every moment from rocks and streams to the quiet and solitude of the dark pine and firs – now walking on a carpet of living moss or dead fir cones; now coming upon a little garden of wild flowers, red, white, and blue, under our feet, with red berries, Alpine roses, and blue forget-me-nots, purple heath in the distance, and above our heads mosses and creepers growing round projecting boulders, – we come suddenly upon a little plantation of toy fir-trees, from for to six inches high, railed off like a miniature park – a nursery for forests for our great-grandchildren to walk in, when the trees above our heads are turned into the eaves and gables of towns. No one touches these plantations,which are to be seen on the mountain-side in various sizes. Planted out wider year by year as they grow larger, until they spread into a living forest. This it is, as we said, that gives the formal and artificial appearance to so many of the walks in the Harz, […].

henry blackburn, ‚the harz mountains: a tour in the toy country‘, london, 1873.

beschneidung: in der landschaft und im garten

encyclopédie_hippe_500

fig. 37 scie à main / handsäge, fig. 38 serpe / hippe, fig. 39 serpette / hippe oder gartenmesser. ill. (ausschnitt) aus ‚encyclopédie ou dictionnaire raisonné des sciences, des arts et des métiers‘, hrsg. von denis diderot und jean baptiste le rond d’alembert , paris, 1751 ff.

zeigt man dem durchschnittlichen gartenbesitzer die instrumente, kommen schnell die emotionen hoch: bäume und gehölze beschneiden? das ist doch natur! formschnitt, ars topiaria, ist verpönt (ausnahme: billige buchsbaumkugeln aus dem baumarkt). kopfweiden → salix im allgemeinen & “der Nutzen von denen Weiden …“ müssen heute schon unter naturschutz stehen, damit sie in form bleiben. bei obstbäumen und beerensträuchern bitte nur maniküre… runtergeschnitten werden nur einjährige und stauden sofort nach der blüte (ordnung muss sein!). bei den röschen fliesst schon mal ein tränchen. die vorhandenen gehölze im garten dürfen wachsen, bis aus dem einst sonnigen garten ein schattengarten geworden ist. kompensation bringt der neue laubbläser …

landschaft: wallhecken & knicks

beschnitte bäume und anderes gehölz finden sich in der klassischen agar-landschaft. wallhecken im münsterland und knicks in schleswig-holstein sind landschaftsbildend, bzw. waren es. durch die industrialisierung der landwirtschaft sind viele der hecken verschwunden. was übrig blieb, sind riesige felder, die ohne den windschutz der hecken zu abtrag und verlust der ackerkrume führen, bodenerosion. vom verlust der artenvielfalt in flora und fauna erst gar nicht zu sprechen… Weiterlesen

blackbox-gardening: mit luhmann im garten?

vortrag von jonas reif bei der gesellschaft zur förderung der gartenkultur e.v., zweig hamburg: blackbox-gardening. das gleichnamige buch von reif, verantwortlicher redakteur der zeitschrift ‚gartenpraxis‘, und christian kreß, inhaber der gärtnerei sarastro-stauden in ort im innkreis, oberösterreich, erschien im letzten jahr bei ulmer. die meisten fotos stammen von jürgen becker. die marketing-abteilung des verlages ging bei erscheinen in die vollen: „Das erste Buch zum völlig neuen Gartenthema.“

blackbox

zum thema blackbox empfehle ich ‚cybernetics: or the control and communication in the animal and the machine‘ von norbert wiener (cambridge, mass, 1948) und ’soziale systeme. grundriß einer allgemeinen theorie‘ von niklas luhmann (frankfurt/m., 1984).

gardening

lassen wir das schlagwort aus dem kybernetischen und systemtheoretischen diskurs einmal bei seite, konzentrieren uns auf gardening (cf. → gartenarbeit vs gardening / kulturelle unterschiede…) und bleiben beim untertitel: „Mit versamenden Pflanzen Gärten gestalten“. also wachsen lassen und das rausreissen (eine lieblingsbeschäftigung!), was stört…

Gardens that give space to self-sowers have a comfortable, personal feel. These plants fill a gap and are wonderful accessories in our overall aim of keeping the show going.

Many people are frightened of self-sowers, thinking that, if allowed, they will lose control and that their garden will look a mess. So they apply thick mulches to prevent this. What they are missing!

[…]

You need to think of self-sowers as allies that need to be controlled. You‘ ll probably be weeding out 95 per cent of them. That’s all right. Those that remain will do their job all the better for not having too much competition.

christopher lloyd, succession planting: self-sowers‘ in the guardian, 27/03/2004, reprinted in ‘cuttings – a year in the garden with christopher lloyd’, london, 2007.

nicht ganz so neu… in anbetracht der aktuellen diskussionen über wilde gärten (pflichtlektüre: william robinson, ‚the wild garden‘, london, 1870), dutch wave, prairie gardens oder welches schlagwort gerade benutzt wird, ist es nicht verwunderlich das ein buch nur über selbstversamende pflanzen erscheint. um nicht zu sagen überfällig. Weiterlesen