tuinen het loo: ‚a description of the king’s royal palace and gardens at loo‘ & knipsen

von 1685 bis 1692 liess der niederländische statthalter willem van oranje für sich und seine frau mary stuart, tochter von james II, das schloss het loo erbauen. die architekten waren der aus frankreich stammende hugenotte daniël marot und jacobus roman, stadtbaumeister von leiden, ab 1689 hofarchitekt. mit dem palast aus backstein wurden die gärten angelegt. der fränzösische einfluss von andré le nôtre, hofgärtner von willems intimfeind louis XIV., ist zu spüren. was jedoch hier im waldgebiet veluwe bei apeldoorn entstand, ist niederländisch, hollands classicisme. prunkvoll und repräsentativ, aber nicht protzig à la versailles.

1689, nach der glorious revolution, bestiegen die erbauer als william III und mary II den englischen thron. hampton court, mit dem für willem angelegten privy garden, oder kensington palace wurden zu hauptresidenzen. im 18. jhr. wurde der garten teilweise dem zeitgeschmack angepasst. im19. jhr., unter louis napoléon bonaparte, verschwand der barock und ein landschaftsgarten wurde angelegt, die barocken paterres aufgefüllt. in der regierungszeit von königin wilhelmia, die nach ihrer abdankung hier lebte, kamen nebengebäude hinzu. zwischen 1977 und 1984 wurde der barocke tuinen het loo rekonstruiert.

bei barockgärten wird gerne mantramässig vom einfluss der gärten von versailles gesprochen. gerade in nordeuropa sollte man eher vom einfluss von het loo sprechen. das im marketingjargon als ”westfälisches versailles” bezeichnete schloss nordkirchen, ist ein „münsterländer het loo“: neben dem architekten gottfried laurenz pictorius (später johann conrad schlaun) wirkte am bau auch jacobus roman mit. oder der große garten in herrenhausen: sophie von der pfalz, kurfürstin von braunschweig-lüneburg aka hanover, war massgeblich an der gestaltung beteiligt. die tochter des winterkönigs, friedrich V. von der pfalz, verbrachte ihre kindheit im niederländischen exil des vaters bei der verwandtschaft ihrer mutter elisabeth stuart. der einfluss der niederländischen gärten wie het loo ist in hannover jederzeit sichtbar, wenn man die versailles-brille abnimmt. eine barocke dutch wave …

1699 erschien in london das buch ‚a description of the king’s royal palace and gardens at loo, […]‘ vom königlichen leibarzt walter harris. eine beschreibung des gartens im „original“-zustand und ein wichtiges dokument für die restaurierung des tuinen het loo:

THIS Description of the King’s Palace, and Gardens at Loo, was most of it written at the Command of our late most Incomparable Queen, of ever Glorious Memory, who was not displeased with the Sight of it; and who, though she Honoured this Royal Fabrick with the laying its first Stone, yet could never have the Pleasure of seeing it Perfected: […]

  

die mittlere allee & ein baunzaun (nicht richard serra, das paleis wird renoviert).

HIS Majesty’s Palace and Gardens at Loo are situated on the cast-side of a large Sandy Heath, or in the Veluwe, a considerable part of the Province of Gelderland, one of the Seven United Provinces. The Heath is extended Southward unto the Rhine, and Northward unto the Zuyder, or South Sea; Westward it runs almost to Amersfort, or within less than two Leagues of it; and Eastward it is extended to the Issel, a considerable River that divides Overyssell from the Veluwe. Loo is three Leagues from Deventer, five from Harderwick on the South-Sea, five from Dieren, another of His Majesty’s Places, six from Arnheim, and twelve Leagues or Hours from Utrecht. It is an excellent Country for Hunting, and abounds with Staggs, some Roe-bucks, the Wild Boar, Foxes, Hares, and some Wolfs. It is no less excellent for Fowling, and has good store of Woodcocks, Partridges, Pheasants, &c. In a Wood near Loo, there is a Herniary for Hawking; and within a league of it North-cast, His Majesty has of late caused to be made an Excellent Decoy, which supplies his Family with good store of Ducks and Teale. And in the Heath beyond the Gardens, there are six Vi∣vers or large Fish-ponds, somewhat after the model or resemblance of those in Hide-Park, the one communicating with the other. […]

The New Palace, lately built by His Majesty, is near unto the Old Hoof, or Old Court, which is a Castle surrounded with a broad Moat, and purchased about 12 or 14 Years ago from the Seigneur de Laeckhuysen, a Gentleman of this Country. They are separated from one another only by some of the Gardens, which lye on the West-side of the New Palace. The Gardens are most Sumptuous and Magnificent, adorned with great variety of most Noble Fountains, Cascades, Parterres, Gravel Walks, and Green Walks, Groves, Statues, Urns, Paintings, Seats, and pleasant Prospects into the Country.

Before the Gate that enters into the Court of the Palace, there is a broad Green Walk between a double row of Oaks, half a mile long; […].

  

blick vom dach über den benedentuin und den boventuin & die die beiden gärten trennende allee mit kanälen.

On the North-side of the Palace, there is a large and most Magnisicent Garden, the which is divided into two Parts, the Lower Garden, and the Upper: the two Divisions being separated by Canals, by a low Wall, and a broad Cross-walk, in the which Cross-walk there are on each side a double row of tall Oaks; but in the middle of this Walk a Considerable space is left open, without Trees, for the more convenient view of all the Fountains, the Porticoes, and the Cascades, that are beyond the said Walk, from the Garden-Gate of the Palace. […]

On the West-side of the Palace there is a Garden under His Majesty’s Apartments, and called the King’s Garden. This has a noble Fountain in the middle of it, and adjoining to it there is a large Bowling-green.

Beyond this Garden Westward, there is another called the Labyrinth or Wilderness, some of whose Fountains may be seen, as also Statues in it, and Painting, from His Majesty’s Bed-chamber.

On the East-side of the Palace there is another Garden, under the Apartments appointed for the Queen, and called the Queen’s Garden. This bears a just proportion with that of the King’s, and hath such another noble Fountain. And adjoining to this Garden fourthwards, there are divers Arbor Walks, with five Fountains in the middle of Parterres.

Beyond the Wall of the Queen’s Garden, Eastward, there is another handsom Garden for retirement, or a Labyrinth, answering the other, with Fountains, Statues, Walks, &c. […]

  

der koningstuin mit wein, spalierobst, … & blick auf den gerade wegen renovierung geschlossenen koninginnetuin mit laubengängen: schatten unter carpinus betulus.

From all the three Terras-walks there is a Green slope, reaching from those Walks above unto a low Brick-wall below, that is only two foot high; at the four corners of these Slopes, in this Garden, there are broad Steps for descending from the Walks above. And at the upper part of the Green Slopes there are abundance of little Pipes of water, about a foot distance one from the other. Each of them hath a Copper head, wherein there are four small holes, through which the water is made to play, in order to water the Slopes, and to preserve them always Green. In the Summer Evenings they are made frequently to rain a small shower for the end aforsaid.

In the low Walk below the Green Slopes, at every four yards distance, there are white Stones, each of them above a foot and a half square, on every one of which there are Urns and noble Flowerpots placed, or to be placed, as on Bases: And some of them have representations of divers Ancient and Modern Curiosities carved upon them.

  

die herculesfontein oder herrschersymbolik im planschbecken & die hemelbolfontein

If we advance still forwards beyond the Fountain of Venus in the same Walk, we behold another Noble Fountain, in the middle of whose Basin is a young naked Hercules of Marble, arising as from his Cradle, also of Marble; the Hercules squeezing a green Serpent in each hand, and both the Serpents spirting the water about two yards above the Basin. On the right and left of the Hercules, at a little distance, within the same Basin, there are placed two Dragons, each spirting seven several Jette’s towards the Hercules. The Basin of this Fountain is likewise bordered with a broad blew Stone, sixteen inches breadth; and paved with a Stone that is about a foot square.

Turning out of the aforesaid Walk, from the Fountain of Venus, into a Cross-walk on the right, we meet with a Fountain in the middle, wherein is erected a Celestial Globe, placed on a Marble Pedestal, between which Pedestal and the Globe there are four naked Boys in Marble, incircling one another in ther Arms. About the Globe the twelve Signs of the Zodiack are curiously painted, the Stars Gilded, and out of abundance of the Stars there do spout out Jettes on all sides of the Globe.

Passing beyond this Globe, we behold at the end of the Walk a most Noble Cascade, a Fabrick of wrought Stone, reaching from the Terras-walk above, down to the Gravel-walk below. […]

  

der buxus ist komplett duch ilex crenata ‚dark green‘ ersetzt & ars topiaria mit juniperus communis ‘suecica’.

This first Partition of the Garden, that contains all the aforesaid Fountains and Cascades, does likewise contain eight several Parterres, all the Quarters being separated by Gravel-walks on every side. The four inmost Parterres do consist of divers Figures in Box, encompassed with Beds of Flowers, and in those Beds there are intermixed many Juniper Trees growing in Pyramidal forms about round and high Staves painted Green. But the four outmost Parterres do consist of Green Plots, that haves Statues placed upon high Pedestals in the middle of every one of them, and have Beds of Flowers a little interspersed among the Green Plots, besides other Beds of Flowers on all the out∣sides of those Parterres, next to the Gravelwalks. The Statues in the middle of those Green Quarters are excellently cut in Marble; they are of Apollo and Pomona on one side of the Garden, and of Bacchus and a Flora on the other side, standing upright on the foresaid Pedestals.

The Beds and Parterres of this and the other Gardens, are not only adorned with Pyramids of Juniper and Box, and with Shrubs of Marshmallows of all colours, but contain variety of Flowers, which successively blow according to the Seasons of the Year. In the Spring there is a variety of the finest Tulips, Hyacinths, Ranunculi, Anemond, Auricula ursi, Narcissus, Junci, &c. In the Summer there are double Poppies of all colours, Gilliflowers, Larks-heels, &c. In the Autumn, the Sun-Flower, Indian Cresses, the Pass-rose or Stock-rose, Marygolds, &c. On the Walls of these Gardens do grow great variety of most excellent Fruit, as the best Peaches, Apricocks; Cherries, Pears, Figs, Plums, Muscant Grapes of all sorts; and their props are every where painted Green. […]

  

oranjeappel: citrus x aurantium & delfts blauw + ficus carica ‚brown turkey‘.

  

cynara cardunculus vor ilex-broderie & zinnia elegans ‘flore pleno’

 

  

nicotiana sylvestris & dicksonia antarctica

[…], we pass over a Canal into the Middle Cross-walk, that divides this Garden, and is remarkable for its double row of tall Oaks on both sides of it. This Walk is eighteen yards broad from the two Stone-steps, and Rails, unto the Bridge over which we are to pass the second Canal, in order to go into the Upper Garden. […]

Advancing forwards from the second Canal about a hundred Paces, in a very broad Gravel-walk, we come to a most Remarkable Fountain, of a vast circum∣ference. The Basin of it is Octangular, and there are sixteen Paces distance between each of the eight Angles. In the whole it is a hundred and twenty eight Paces round. ‚Tis bordered with a broad raised Stone-work, and paved with Pebbles, like many of the other Foun∣tains, in divers sorts of uniform Figures. In the middle of this Great Basin there is a Spout that throws up the water forty four, or forty five foot high perpendicular. […]

A little beyond this Great Fountain, in the same Walk, we descend by three wide Stone-steps to another admirable Fountain, in the middle of which there are four naked Boys in Marble, with four Beasts between them, those Boys and Beasts representing the four parts of the World. Over the Boys Heads there are four gilded scollop Shells, and over the inmost part of those Shells a gilded Basin inverted. Out of the middle of this Basin the water rises in form of a Peacock’s Tail spread out at length, about a foot anda half above the inverted Basin. […]

  

delfts blauw … blick über den kanal in den boventuin & wasserspielen, die pauwenstaart fontein …

THE Park is a great space of Ground containing many Long Green Walks, Groves, Nurseries: Fountains, Canals, Cascades, the Viver and divers Corn-fields, within the Pales. So that when His Majesty is pleased to take diversion at home, there is not wanting Game for Shooting, Setting, &c. […]

walter harris, ‚a description of the king’s royal palace and gardens at loo, […]‘, london 1699

  

ein hauch von „jardin de luxembourg“ mit einer pragmatischen nutzung eines sockels & leider nur ein paleis ohne garten auf dem spielplatz …

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